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Rulers of Palestine and Egypt
Intertestamental Era (334 BC - 4 BC)

Dennis Bratcher

Geographical Areas Ruled by the Successors
of Alexander the Great
Syria/Palestine
(Seleucids)
Palestine/Jerusalem
(Maccabees or Hasmonean)
Egypt
(Ptolemies)
Alexander the Great
334 - 323
Territories disputed following Alexander's death
Seleucus I
312 - 281
Ptolemy I Soter
320 - 285
Antiochus I
281 - 261
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
285 - 247
Antiochus II
261 - 246
Seleucus II
246 - 226
Ptolemy III Euergetes
247 - 222
Seleucus III
226 - 223
Antiochus III
223 - 187
Ptolemy IV Philapator
222 - 205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
205 - 198
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
205 - 182
Antiochus III
198 - 187
Seleucus IV Philopater
187 - 175
Ptolemy VI Philometer
182 - 146
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
175 - 163
Mattathias
168 - 166
Antiochus V Eupator
163 - 162
Judas Maccabeus
166 - 160
Demetrius I Soter
162 - 150
Alexander Balas
150 - 145
Jonathan Maccabeus
160 - 143
Demetrius II Nicator
145 - 139
Simon Maccabeus
143 - 135
Ptolemy VII
Euergetes II
146 - 116
Antiochus VII Sidetes
139 - 129
John Hyrcanus I
135 - 104
Demetrius II
129 - 95
Ptolemy VIII Soter II
116 - 108
Aristobulus I
104 - 103
Ptolemy IX Alexander
108 - 89
Alexander Jannaeus
103 - 76
Demetrius III
95 - 78
Ptolemy VIII Soter II
88 - 80
Ptolemy X
Alexander II  80
Armenian and Roman Control Hyrcanus II and Alexandra
76 - 67
 
Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II
67 - 63*
Pompey
Roman Occupation
63
Antipater Herod
Procurator of Judea
47 -43
Antigonus
40 - 37
  Herod the Great
37 - 4
 
  [Chart continues with rule of the Herods]  

*Both Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II claimed control of Palestine, and their feuding led to Roman intervention by the general Pompey in 63 BC.  They continued to claim power even after Roman occupation of the land, but were never in administrative control.

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the Greek Empire was torn by dissension as his seven commanders vied for control.  After a decade of struggle, three of the generals finally succeeded in dividing the territory.  Antigonus took the eastern section of Macedonia and Asia Minor and played little role in the history of Palestine in this period except to challenge Ptolemy for a time for control of Egypt. Seleucus took over the northern and eastern territory including Syria and Babylon while Ptolemy took Egypt. This left the area of Palestine on the border between Seleucus and Ptolemy.  It was controlled by the Ptolemies until 198 BC when Antiochus III took control of the territory that included Jerusalem.  It remained under Seleucid control until the Maccabean Revolt in 168 BC.

The early Maccabees ruled as High Priest until 150 when Jonathan was made governor of Syria by Alexander Balas. Simon was appointed both High Priest and ethnarc by Demetrius, and Aristobolus assumed the title of both High Priest and King in 104/103.

-Dennis Bratcher, Copyright © 2013, Dennis Bratcher - All Rights Reserved
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